Dart cheat sheet

Dart cheat sheet. Explore our ultimate quick reference for Dart.

This is a comprehensive Dart cheat sheet in Markdown format covering the essentials of Dart programming, including syntax, control flow, data types, functions, classes, and more. It's designed for quick reference and to help new learners get acquainted with Dart's features. Let's review and refine it for clarity and accuracy.

Getting Started


// top-level function where app execution starts
void main(){
    print("Hello World!"); // Print to console

Every app has a main() function


int x = 2; // explicitly typed
var p = 5; // type inferred - Generic var with type inference

dynamic z = 8; // variable can take on any type
z = "cool"; // cool

// if you never intend to change a variable use final or const. Something like this:

final email = "[email protected]"; // Same as var but cannot be reassigned
final String email = "[email protected]"; // you can't change the value

const qty = 5; // Compile-time constant


int age = 20; // integers, range -2^63 to 2^63 - 1
double height = 1.85; // floating-point numbers

// You can also declare a variable as a num
num x = 1;  // x can have both int and double values
num += 2.5;
print(num); //Print: 3.5

String name = "Nicola";

bool isFavourite = true;
bool isLoaded = false;

String interpolation

// can use single or double qoutes for String type
var firstName = 'Nicola';
var lastName = "Tesla";

//can embed variables in string with $
String fullName = "$firstName $lastName";

// concatenate with +
var name = "Albert " + "Einstein";

String upperCase = '${firstName.toUpperCase()}';
print(upperCase); //Print: NICOLA


// This is a normal, one-line comment.

/// This is a documentation comment, used to document libraries,
/// classes, and their members. Tools like IDEs and dartdoc treat
/// doc comments specially.

/* Comments like these are also supported. */


// Importing core libraries
import 'dart:math';

// Importing libraries from external packages
import 'package:test/test.dart';

// Importing files
import 'path/to/my_other_file.dart';


Arithmatic Operators

print(2 + 3); //Print: 5
print(2 - 3); //Print: -1
print(2 * 3); //Print: 6
print(5 / 2);  //Print: 2.5 - Result is a double
print(5 ~/ 2); //Print: 2 - Result is an int
print(5 % 2); //Print: 1 - Remainder

int a = 1, b;
// Increment
b = ++a; // preIncrement - Increment a before b gets its value.
b = a++; // postIncrement - Increment a AFTER b gets its value.

b = --a; // predecrement - Decrement a before b gets its value.
b = a--; // postdecrement - Decrement a AFTER b gets its value.

Equality and relational operators

print(2 == 2);  //Print: true - Equal
print(2 != 3); //Print: true - Not  Equal
print(3 > 2); //Print: true - Grater than
print(2 < 3); //Print: true - Less than
print(3 >= 3); //Print: true - Greater than or equal to
print(2 <= 3); //Print: true - Less than or equal to

Logical operators

// !expr inverts the expression (changes false to true, and vice versa)
// ||   logical OR
// &&   logical AND
bool isOutOfStock = false;
int quantity = 3;
if (!isOutOfStock && (quantity == 2 || quantity == 3)) {
  // ...Order the product...

Control Flows : Conditionals

if and else if

if(age < 18){
} else if( age > 18 && age <60){
} else {

switch case

enum Pet {dog, cat}
Pet myPet =;
        print('My Pet is Dog.');
        print('My Pet is Cat.');
        print('I don\'t have a Pet');
// Prints: My Pet is Dog.

Control Flows : Loops

while loop

while (!dreamsAchieved) {

while loop check condition before iteration of the loop

do-while loop

do {
} while (!dreamsAchieved);

do-while loop verifies the condition after the execution of the statements inside the loop

for loop

for(int i=0; i< 10; i++){

var numbers = [1,2,3];
// for-in loop for lists
for(var number in numbers){



// ordered group of objects
var list = [1, 2, 3];

print(list.length); //Print: 3
print(list[1]); //Print: 2

// other ways of list declaration and initializations

List<String> cities = <String>["New York", "Mumbai", "Tokyo"];

// To create a list that’s a compile-time constant
const constantCities = const ["New York", "Mumbai", "Tokyo"];


// A set in Dart is an unordered collection of unique items.
var halogens = {'fluorine', 'chlorine', 'bromine', 'iodine', 'astatine'};

// to create an empty set
var names = <String>{};
Set<String> names = {}; // This works, too.
//var names = {}; // Creates a map, not a set.


// a map is an object that associates keys and values
var person = Map<String, String>();
// To initialize the map, do this:
person['firstName'] = 'Nicola';
person['lastName'] = 'Tesla';

print(person); //Print: {firstName: Nicola, lastName: Tesla}
print(person['lastName']); //Print: Tesla

var nobleGases = {
  // Key: Value
  2: 'helium',
  10: 'neon',
  18: 'argon',



// functions in dart are objects and have a type
int add(int a, int b){
    return a+b;

// functions can be assigned to variables
int sum = add(2,3); // returns: 5

// can be passed as arguments to other functions
int totalSum = add(2, add(2,3)); // returns : 7

Arrow Syntax (=>)

// functions that contain just one expression, you can use a shorthand syntax
bool isFav(Product product) => favProductsList.contains(product);

Anonymous (lambda) functions

// small one line functions that dont have name
int add(a,b) => a+b;

// lambda functions mostly passed as parameter to other functions
const list = ['apples', 'bananas', 'oranges'];
(item) => print('${list.indexOf(item)}: $item'));
//Prints: 0: apples 1: bananas 2: oranges

Classes and Objects


class Cat {
    String name;

    // method
    void voice(){


// instance of a class
// below myCat is Object of class Cat

void main(){
    Cat myCat = Cat(); = "Kitty";
    myCat.voice(); // Prints: Meow


class Cat {
    String name;
void main(){
    Cat myCat = Cat("Kitty");
    print(; // Prints: Kitty

Abstract Classes

// abstract class—a class that can’t be instantiated
// This class is declared abstract and thus can't be instantiated.
abstract class AbstractContainer {
  // Define constructors, fields, methods...

  void updateChildren(); // Abstract method.

Getters Setters

// provide read and write access to an object’s properties
class Cat {
    String name;

    // getter
    String get catName {
        return name;

    // setter
    void set catName(String name){ = name;

Implicit interfaces

A basic interface

// A person. The implicit interface contains greet().
class Person {
  // In the interface, but visible only in this library.
  final String _name;

  // Not in the interface, since this is a constructor.

  // In the interface.
  String greet(String who) => 'Hello, $who. I am $_name.';

// An implementation of the Person interface.
class Impostor implements Person {
  String get _name => '';

  String greet(String who) => 'Hi $who. Do you know who I am?';

String greetBob(Person person) => person.greet('Bob');

void main() {
  print(greetBob(Person('Kathy'))); // Hello, Bob. I am Kathy.
  print(greetBob(Impostor())); // Hi Bob. Do you know who I am?

Extending a class

class Phone {

    void use(){
// Use extends to create a subclass
class SmartPhone extends Phone {
    void use(){
        // use super to refer to the superclass



// throws or raises and exception
throw IntegerDivisionByZeroException();

// You can also throw arbitrary objects
throw "Product out of stock!";


try {
    int c = 3/0;
} on IntegerDivisionByZeroException {
    // A specific exception
    print('Can not divide integer by 0.')
} on Exception catch (e) {
    // Anything else that is an exception
    print('Unknown exception: $e');
} catch (e) {
    // No specified type, handles all
    print('Something really unknown: $e');


// To ensure that some code runs whether or not an exception is thrown
try {
} catch (e) {
  print('Error: $e'); // Handle the exception first.
} finally {
  cleanKitchen(); // Then clean up.


Async Await

// functionswhich are asynchronous: they return after setting up a possibly time-consuming operation
// The async and await keywords support asynchronous programming

Future<String> login() {
 String userName="Temidjoy";
    Duration(seconds: 4), () => userName);

// Asynchronous
main() async {
 print('Authenticating please wait...');
 print(await userName());


Null and Null aware

int x; // The initial value of any object is null

// ?? null aware operator

x ??=6; // ??= assignment operator, which assigns a value of a variable only if that variable is currently null
print(x); //Print: 6

x ??=3;
print(x); // Print: 6 - result is still 6

print(null ?? 10); // Prints: 10. Display the value on the left if it's not null else return the value on the right

Ternary Operator

// condition ? exprIfTrue : exprIfFalse
bool isAvailable;

isAvailable ? orderproduct() : addToFavourite();

Spread Operator (...)

// to insert multiple values into a collection.
var list = [1, 2, 3];
var list2 = [0, ...list];

print(list2.length); //Print: 4

Cascade notation (..)

// allows you to make a sequence of operations on the same object

// rather than doing this
var user = User(); = "Nicola"; = "[email protected]";
user.age = 24;

// you can do this
var user = User() = "Nicola" = "[email protected]"
  ..age = 24;

Conditional Property Access


//The code snippet above is equivalent to following:
(userObject != null) ? userObject.userName : null

//You can chain multiple uses of ?. together in a single expression

// The preceeding code returns null and never calls toString() if either userObject or userObject.userName is null

Useful info

5 Useful Tips for Dart Programming

  1. Leverage Strong Typing: Dart is a statically typed language. Make full use of type annotations to improve your code's clarity and reliability. It helps with performance optimization and catching errors early in the development process.

    int sum(int a, int b) {
     return a + b;
  2. Use final and const for Immutability: Whenever you have variables that you do not want to change after their initial assignment, use final or const. const values are compile-time constants, and final variables can only be set once.

    final String name = 'John Doe';
    const int age = 30;
  3. Take Advantage of Collection Literals: Dart supports list, set, and map literals, allowing for a concise and clear way to work with collections.

    var fruits = ['apples', 'bananas', 'oranges'];
    var fruitSet = {'apples', 'bananas', 'oranges'};
    var fruitMap = {'apples': 'green', 'bananas': 'yellow', 'oranges': 'orange'};
  4. Use Asynchronous Programming: Dart's support for async programming with Future and Stream classes allows for efficient handling of operations that might take time, such as IO and network requests, improving app responsiveness.

    Future<void> fetchData() async {
     var data = await fetchFromDatabase();
  5. Explore Effective Dart Guidelines: The Dart team provides an "Effective Dart" guide with best practices on how to write clear and idiomatic Dart code. This includes recommendations on formatting, documentation, usage, and design.

  1. DartPad: DartPad

    • An online tool for experimenting with Dart syntax and libraries without any setup.
  2. Official Dart Documentation: Dart Docs

    • Comprehensive guides and documentation for learning Dart and keeping up with the latest language features.
  3. Effective Dart: Effective Dart Guide

    • Best practices, style guide, and usage patterns recommended by the Dart team to write clean and idiomatic Dart code.
  4. Dart Packages:

    • The official package repository for Dart and Flutter packages. A valuable resource for finding libraries to speed up development.
  5. Dart Language Tour: Dart Language Tour

    • A comprehensive overview of the Dart language, covering all the fundamental concepts, syntax, and features you need to know.